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Full text of "Teaching of the Twelve Apostles : recently discovered and published by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia"

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of tbe twelve Hpostles. 





















.0 a . 




IN 1875 Philotheos Bryennios, then Metro 
politan of Serrae (now Serres), in ancient Mace 
donia, published the two Epistles of Clement 
of Rome, from a manuscript discovered by him 
in the Library of the Most Holy Sepulchre in 
Fanar of Constantinople. The last six chapters 
(60-65) of the First Epistle, and the last eight 
sections (13-20) of the so-called Second Epistle, 
had never been published before. The date of 
the manuscript is 1056 A.D. As described by 
the finder, " it is an octavo volume, written on 


parchment, in cursive characters, and consists of 
120 leaves." First comes Chrysostom s Synop 
sis of the Books of the Old and New Testa 
ment ; then the Epistle of Barnabas ; then the 
two Epistles of Clement ; then the Teaching of 
the Twelve Apostles ; then the Epistle of Mary 
of Cassobelae to Ignatius ; followed by twelve 
Epistles of Ignatius (the current seven, besides 
one to the Virgin Mary, and four others). 

The " Teaching of the Twelve Apostles," 
Ai$a%y] rtiv Su&sxa ATtoarohuv, occupies leaves 
76-80 of the manuscript. It now seems strange 
to us that the document thus announced at 
tracted so little attention. This same Bryeii- 
nios, now Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in Asia 
Minor, has again surprised the literary world by 
publishing, with an abundance of learned illus 
tration, this long-lost document. It is printed 
in Constantinople, and the date of publication is 
1883. The genuineness of the document can 
hardly be doubted. It is cited by Clement of 
Alexandria in his First Strorna ; by Eusebius, 


who speaks of it (Hist. iii. 25) as t&v Anoa- 
rohuv al fay6{.ievaL $i$a%ai ; and by Athanasius 
in his 39th Festal Epistle. Bickell and Geb- 
hardt had recently argued that there must have 
been some such document underlying both the 
Seventh Book of the Apostolic Constitutions 
and the Apostolic Epitome. In 1882 Kra- 
wutzky undertook, from these sources, to re 
cover and reconstruct the embedded earlier and 
simpler document ; and with a success of the 
most pronounced and brilliant character, as now 
tested by the work just published. 

This document belongs undoubtedly to the 
second century ; possibly as far back as 1 20 
A.D., hardly later than 160 A.D. The whole tone 
of it is archaic. It contradicts nothing belong 
ing to that age ; corroborates some things which 
may henceforth be more strongly emphasized ; 
and adds some things for which we may well 
be very profoundly grateful. 

The present editors are happy to be able to 
put this " Teaching of the Twelve Apostles " so 


promptly before the American public. The 
text has been carefully edited. The translation 
will be found to be studiously literal. A few 
notes have been added, which, it is hoped, may 
be of service both to students and to general 


NEW YOBK CITY, March 20, 1884. 





Kvptov Bia TMV BcoBe/ca aTrocrroXwv rot? 

Ke(f>. a. OSol Bvo elai, fiia rrjs a)i)<i KCU pia TOV Savd- 

rov, &ia<f>opa Be TTO\\I] fj,era^v rwv Bvo o 
5 H. JAW ovv 080? T?}9 ^&)% eanv avTij 

ayairijcreis TOV Qeov TOV Troiij&avrd ere Bevre- 
pov, TOV TrXrjcriov aov <w<? creavrov rravra Be ocra 
eav ^eX^cr?;? fj,rj yivecrQal croi, teal crv d\\w fii] 
Troiei. TOVTWV Be TWV \6ya)V r) BiBa-^/j <TTIV 

10 avrij EvXoyeiTe roi)? KCtTapw/jLevovs KOI 

Trpoa-ev^ea-^e VTrep TWV e^pwv VJJLWV, vijcrTeve-e 
Be VTrep rdov BtojfcovTwv u/Lta9 Troia <yap ^api?, 





CHAP. I. Two ways there are, one of life and one of y 
death, but there is a great difference between the two 
ways. The way of life, then, is this : First, thon shalt 
love the God who made thee ; secondly, thy neighbor 
as thyself ; and all things whatsoever thou wouldst not 
have befall thee, thou, too, do not to another. ]STow 
of these words the teaching is this : Bless them that 
curse you, and pray for your enemies, and fast for 
them that persecute you : for what thank have ye if ye 




eav aycnrare TOU? ayaTrwvTas vp,as ; ov^i Ka ~a 
e&wr] rb avTO TTOLOVCTIV ; vfjielf Be uyaTraTe TOI"? 

15 fjuaovvras tyxa? KOI ov-^ e^ere e^pov. Aire^ov 

TWV erapKiK&v Kai KOCT/JLIKWV &7nQvfM&V. Eav 
Tt? aoi Bu> puTTio-fia et9 rr]V Se^iav criayova, 
a-Tpetyov avTw /ecu rrjv aXX^y, Kal ecrrj TeXeio<? 
lav dyyapevcrrj ae rt? jj,i\iov ev, vTraje fier av- 

20 TOV Bvo eav apy ri? TO l/uirtov (rov, ^09 avru> 

Kal TOV ^iTwva eav \d(3rj Ti<? aTro aov TO crov, 
fir) diraiTei ovBe yap Svvacrai. Ilavrl TW al- 
TOVVTI <76 BL&OV Kal p^rj ivn CUT i TTa&L yap 
SiSoa-Sai o TraTrjp e /c TWV IOLWV 

25 Ma/ca/9to? o StSou? /cara Trjv evTO\ijv 

yap ea-Tiv oval raJ \afjL/3dvovTi el fiev yap 
Xayu/3avet rt?, a^cuos" e<rrat o Be 
cocret BCKTJV, ivaTi e\aj3e Kal e 
Ti , eV (Tvvoyr) Be yevo/Aevos l^eTeurStyTffreu Trepl 

30 w^ eVpa^e, /cat oi)/c e^eXeucrerat eKel&ev ft&xpvi 

ov aTToSoi) roy Sffjfarov KoBpdvTTjV. A\\a /cat 
t TOVTOV BJJ eipr]Tai IBpwadTCi) r, e\er)/J,oav- 
crov elf Ta? %et/aa? crou, /ie^/Jt? ay 7^9 

35 Ke^. /S 7 . AevTepa Be evTo\r] T^ 8t8a%?}9 Ou fy 
9, ou 7raiBo$>$opij<ri$, ov 


love them that love you ? Do not the nations also the 
same ? But love ye them that hate you and ye shall 
have no enemy. Abstain from the fleshly and worldly 
lusts. If any one give thee a blow on the right cheek, 
turn to him the other also, and thou shalt be perfect ; 
if any one compel thee to go one mile, go with him 
two ; if any one take thy cloak, give him thy tunic also ; 
if any one take from thee what is thine, ask it not 
back; for indeed thou canst not. To every one that 
asketh thee give, and ask not back ; for to all the 
Father desires to give of his own gracious gifts. Blessed 
is he that giveth according to the commandment ; for 
he is guiltless ; wo to him that taketh ; for if, indeed, 
one taketh who hath need, he shall be guiltless ; but he 
who hath no need shall give account, why he took, and 
for what purpose, and coming under arrest shall be ex 
amined concerning what he did, and shall not go out 
thence until he pay the last farthing. But it hath 
been also said concerning this matter : Let thine alms 
sweat in thy hands, until thou knowest to whom thou 
shouldst give. 

CHAP. II. Kow the second commandment of the 
teaching is : Thou shalt not kill, thou shalt not commit 
adultery, thou shalt not corrupt boys, thou shalt not 



ov *rX(tyei9, ov /iayeuo-et?, ov (jxtpfiaicevcrei?, ov 
reKVOV ev $opa ovoe yevvrj&ev U.TTO- 
OVK iTTiSvfjujcreis ra rov 7T\qffov t 

40 OVK eVto/3/crycret ?, ov ^ei;8o/AapTup7/cret9, ov KCIKO- 

Xo7^cret9, ov nvrjo-iKaKijcreis. OVK e 
ovBe 8i 7Xeoo-o-o9 irayls yap Savdrov 1} 
cria. OUK eo-rat 6 ^0709 O-QV ^euS?;?, ov 
aXXa fie/jieo-TMfJLevos Trpafet. OUK eo-rj 7T\eov6K- 

45 T79 ovoe ap-iral; ovoe viroKpiTi]*; ov&e /ca/co?;^?;? 

cuSe vTreprifavos. Ou \^r) fiov\l]V trovrjpav 
Kara rov TrX^crioy aov. Ov /Atcr^o-et9 Trdvra av- 
Spwrrov, aXXa 01)9 pev eXe7^et9, vrepl Se wv TT/JOO-- 
eu^, 01)9 8e dyaTrrjcrew VTrep rrjv -tyvyriv <rov. 

50 Ke$. 7 . TeKVOv /JLOV, (f>evye airo 7ravT09 Trovrjpov Kal 
a-Tro 7ravT09 oyu-o/oy ayroO M^ 7/ww 6^71X09 
o&rjyel yap i] opyr) 77^09 TOJ/ <f>6vov 

yevvcovrai. TCKVOV /^ou, JJMJ 
55 7iVov eTnSvfjLqnft 6877764 yap T; eTnSvpta 7T/5O9 

Tropveiav fJ,Tj$e 010-^/30X0709 ^7786 v^rr)\o(j)- 
6K yap rovrwv arcavrwv fjiOL^eiai yev- 
vwvrai. TCKVOV pov, /J,rj yivov ctWccr/coVo? * 
eVetS^ oorjyel et9 rrjv ei ScoXoXarpeiay ^Se eVa.- 
60 04869 firjbe fj,a&r]p<c 



commit fornication, thou shalt not steal, tliou shalt not 
practise magic, thou shalt not use sorcery, thou shalt 
not slay a child by abortion, nor what is begotten shalt 
thou destroy. Thou shalt not lust after the things 
of thy neighbor, thou shalt not forswear thyself, 
thou shalt not bear false witness, thou shalt not re 
vile, thou shalt not bear malice. Thou shalt not be 
doubled-minded nor doubled-tongued ; for a snare of 
death is the double tongue. Thy speech shall not be 
false, nor empty, but filled with doing. Thou shalt not 
be covetous, nor rapacious, nor a hypocrite, nor malicious, 
n<?r arrogant. Thou shalt not take evil counsel against 
thy neighbor. Thou shalt hate no man, but some thou 
shalt reprove, and for some thou shalt pray, and some 
thou shalt love above thy life. 

CHAP. III. My child, flee from every evil thing, and 
from everything like it. Be not inclined to anger, for 
anger leadeth to murder ; nor jealous, nor contentious, 
nor passionate ; for of all these murders are begotten. 
My child, become not lustful ; for lust leadeth to for 
nication ; nor foul-mouthed, nor lofty-eyed ; for of all 
these things adulteries are begotten. My child, become 
not an omen-watcher ; since it leadeth into idolatry ; 
nor an enchanter, nor an astrologer, nor a purifier, nor 



e SeXe avra /3Xe7retz> e/c <yap rovroiv afrdv- 
TOOV el8{i)\o\arpeia yevvarai. Tercvov fiov, fir/ 
ylvov "^reva-Tys eVetSr/ oSrjyei TO fyeixrp.a elf 
rrjv K\07n]V /JbrjSe <j)iXdpyvpos prj&e Kev6Bo%o<> 
65 K yap Tovrayv aTTavTWV K\O7ral ryzvvwvrai. Tetc- 

vov /xou, jj,rj ylvov yoyyvaos eVetSr/ oSrjyel ei<? ryv 
fSXacrfyriiLiav yu/^Se avQdSrjs //.i^Se Trovrjpofypwv 
eic yap TOVTWV airdvrwv /SXao-^yCitat yevvwvrai. 
"Icr&i Se Trpavs, eVel ot Trpaet? K\r)povofi,r)<rova-t 
70 Trjv yyv. Tivov /ia^po^u/xo? /cat e\eijfj.(t)v /cat 

/cal 170-^109 /cat 070^0? /cat rpe^wv rou? 
Sta Travros, ov? rjKOVGas. OVK vtywaeis 
treavrbv ov&e Scocrft? T^ ^f %f? crou Spdcros. Ov 
KO\\r)&ij(rTat, r) ^f%J/ <7ou /iera v-^rr)\(ov, aXX<z 
75 yttera SiKaicav xal raireivfov dvaa-rpa(f>r)o-r). Ta 

(TviJi(3aivovrd crot evepyijfj,ara w? dyaSa 
ei 8a>9 ort arep 6>eoO ot8ey yiverat, 

Kecf). 8 . Tetcvov JJLOV, rov XaXoO^ro? trot ro^ \6yov rov 
0eov fJ,vrj(rSrjcrr) VVKTOS /cat T^/ie pa?, Tt/Lt?;o-et5 8e 
80 avrov cb? Kvpiov o$v yap rj /cu/Jtor?/? XaXetrat, 

e /cet Kvptos ecrnv. E/c^TT^cret? 8e /ca^ rj^fpav 
Ta "jrooarwrra rwv ayia>v, i va eTravajravrj rot9 
vT&v. Ov 7ro$?/Vet9 cr^icr/u-a, elpyvev- 
Se /ia^o/ieyou? tcpiveis 8t/cata)9, ou XT;- 



be willing to look upon these things ; for of all these 
things idolatry is begotten. My child, become not a 
liar ; since lying leads to theft ; nor avaricious, nor vain 
glorious ; for of all these things thefts are begotten. 
My child, become not a murmurer ; since it leads to 
blasphemy ; nor presumptuous, nor evil-minded ; for of 
all these things blasphemies are begotten. But be meek, 
since the meek shall inherit the earth. Become long- 
suffering and pitiful and guileless and gentle and good, 
and tremble continually at the words which thou hast 
heard. Thou shalt not exalt thyself, nor permit over- 
boldness to thy soul. Thy soul shall not cleave to the 
high, but with the righteous and lowly thou shalt 
dwell. The things that befall thee accept as well- 
wrought, knowing that without God nothing occurs. 

CHAP. IV. My child, him that speaks to thee the 
word of God remember night and day, and thou shalt 
honor him as the Lord ; for where that which pertaineth 
to the Lord is spoken there the Lord is. And thou shalt 
seek out daily the faces of the saints that thou mayst be 
refreshed by their words. Thou shalt not desire division, 
but shalt make peace between those who contend ; thou 


85 Trpoo-eoTTOV eXej^ai eVi TrapaTrrwpacriv. Ou Bi- 

"Jrvyrja-eis, Trorepov earai fj ov. Mrj <ytvov 7rpo9 
fiev TO \aftelv eicretvwv ras %etpa9, 717)09 5e TO 
Sovvat (TvaTrwv eav ^779, Sta TWV ^eipwv <rov 
8wo-et9 \vrposo~iv a/jiapriwv trov. 

90 Sovvai ojj8e 8t8oJ9 7077^0-619 * 

ecrriv 6 rov fJiia Sov /caXo9 cw 
a7TO(7rpa(f>ijcrr} rov evBeopevov, 

ev TW a^amTW Kowwvo eare, 
95 naXkov ev Tot9 BVTITOK ; Ov/c a/3t9 TT 

(70l OTTO TOJJ Ui oO O-OU rj CLTTO TT^9 

aX\a aTTo ve6T?;TO9 8tSa^et9 TOI> 

Tot9 eVl TOV avTov @eoy eX7ri bucrii>, eV iriicpiq 
100 o-ov, /i^TTOTe oy /AT) foprjSrjO-ovrat, rov eV a/i- 

forepois eov ov jap ep^erai Kara 
Ka\eaai, aXX e (/) 01)9 TO Trvevpa ri 
T/it9 8e 01 SouXoi vTrorayijo-eo-Se Tot? icvpiois 
VJJLWV a>9 TVTT) 0eoO eV aio-xyvy ical <6/3&>. 
105 Mto-r;o-et9 7rao-ay vTroKpiffiv Kal irav o prj apecr- 

TOJ/ T&> Kvptqt. Ou fJiij <yKara\iTTT)s evro\a<> 
a 7rapeX^/Se9, /i/Tc 7Tpo<rri- 
Er etcK\r)(ria ^0/10X07770-77 

ra TrapaTTTw/AaTa o-ou, /cat ou 7rpo<re\ev<r7) eVl 


slialt judge justly, thou shalt not respect persons in con 
victing for transgressions. Thou shalt not hesitate 
whether it shall be or not. Become not one who for tak 
ing stretches out the hands, but for giving draws them 
in ; if thou hast anything, by thy hands thou shalt give 
a ransom for thy sins. Thou shalt not hesitate to give, 
nor when giving shalt thou murmur, for thou shalt know 
who is the good dispenser of the recompense. Thou 
shalt not turn away the needy, but slialt share all things 
with thy brother, and shalt not say they are thine own ; 
for if ye are partners in that which is imperishable, how 
much more in the perishable things? Thou shalt not 
take off thy hand from thy son and from thy daughter, 
but from youth thou shalt teach them the fear of God. 
Thou shalt not lay commands in thy bitterness upon thy 
slave or handmaid, who hope in the same God, lest they 
perchance shalt not fear the God who is over you both ; 
for he cometh not to call men according to the ap 
pearance, but to those whom the Spirit hath made 
ready. And ye, slaves, ye shall be subject to your lords, 
as to God s image, in modesty and fear. Thou shalt 
hate every hypocrisy, and whatever is not pleasing to 
the Lord. Thou shalt by no means forsake the Lord s 
commandments, but shalt guard what thou hast received, 
neither adding to it nor taking from it. In the church 



110 Trpoa-evxyv ffov ev crvve&ija-ei Trovypa. Avrrj 

eo-rlv f) 6809 T^ 

Ke<f>. e. H Be TOV Savdrov 6869 effTtv avrij 

Trdvrwv -jrovypd eari ical Kardpas pearij <J>6voi, 
/ioi^euu, eTTiSvfjiiai, Tropvelai, K\07rai, et StoXo- 

115 \arpeiai, pa^eiai, fyapnaiceiai, dpTrajai, -iJreuSo- 

fiaprvpiai, vTTOKpla-e^, 8t7rXo/cap8/a, 80X09, virep- 
i)(f)avia, KaKta, avSdSeia, 7r\eove%ta, ai 

dyaSaiv, niaovvres dkijBeiav, 
120 TC9 i|re08o9, ov <yiV(o<TKOvre<; fiicr&bv &IKCIIO- 

o-vvrjs, ov /coXXwytie^ot ayaSu) ovSe tcpivei dt- 
Kaia, dypvirvovvres OVK et9 TO dyaSov, aXX 
t9 TO TTOvrjpov &v [iciKpav 7rpavrrj<i teal VTTO- 
fj,ovi], fjidraia dyaTrwvres, SKatcovres dvraTro- 
125 8o/ia, OVK eXeovvres 7rra>%6i>. ov TTOVOVVTCS eVt 

KaraTrovovfJievy, ov yivwa-Kovres TOV Troujaavra 
avrovs, foveis refcvwv, <^>Sopet? 7rXacr//aT09 Oeov, 
rbv evSeopevov, KaraTrovovvres 


130 rwv avopoi Kpirat, 7raz/5o/iapT7/rot / 

, CLTTO rovrcov aTrdvrwv. 

Ke(j). g. "Opa M T/9 (T 7r\avr)crr) d-jro ravrr]<; T7/9 ooov 


tliou shalt confess thy transgressions, and shalt not come 
forward for thy prayer with an evil conscience. This 
is the way of life. 

CHAP. V. Now the way of death is this : first of 
all it is evil, and full of curse ; murders, adulteries, lusts, 
fornications, thefts, idolatries, magic arts, sorceries, rob 
beries, false testimonies, hypocrisies, duplicity, craft, 
arrogance, vice, presumptuousness, greed, foul speech, 
jealousy, over-boldness, loftiness, pretence ; persecutors 
of the good, hating truth, loving falsehood, knowing not 
the reward of righteousness, not cleaving to that which 
is good nor to righteous judgment, on the watch not 
for good but for evil ; far from whom are meekness 
and patience, loving vanities, pursuing revenge, not 
pitying a poor man, not laboring for the distressed, not 
knowing him that made them, murderers of children, 
destroyers of the image of God, turning away the 
needy, oppressing the afflicted, advocates of the rich, 
lawless judges of the poor, universal sinners : may ye 
be delivered, children, from all these. 

CHAP. VI. See that no one lead thee astray from 
this way of the teaching, because apart from God does 


El (lev yap Buvaa-ai ftao-rdo-at, oKov rov frybv 
135 rov Kvptov, reXeto? eery el 8 ov Bvvaaai, o Bvvy 

rovro Troiei. Ilepl Be TT}<? /3/>o>creei>9, o Sumcrai 
ftdaraa-ov avro Se rov el8a)\oBvTOV \(av Trpoa- 
e^e \arpeia yap eVrt Qtwv veiepwv. 

Ke<f). . Ilepl Be rov ft airria paras, ovrw fiaTrricrare 
140 ravra irdvra Trpoenrovres, fiaTniaare ei <? TO 

ovo^a rov Uarpo? /cat roi) T/ou /cat TOU dyiov 
nvevparos ev vbari tpvri. Eav Be p.r) 6^779 
vBcop &v, et9 aXXo v8a)/> fid-rrrKrov el B ov 
Bvvaa-at ei> ^vxpa), V ^ep/iw. Eav Be d 

145 M xy> K X OV t 9 r *) v Ke 4 }a ^ 

oVofta JIaT/305 /cat Ttov /cal aytof 
IIpo Be rov /SaTTTtoyiaTO? Trpovijarevcrdra) 6 fiaTT- 
ri&v Kal 6 /SaTTTt^o/iefo? /cat ei Ttve? aXXot 8u- 
vavrai /ceAeucr9 8e ^o-reOcrat TW fiaTrn^o- 
150 pevov Trpb plat r) Bvo. 

). At Be vycrrelai v/j-wv firj earwaav /iera rwv 
VTTOKpirwv vrjcrrevovai yap Bevrepa <ra@/3d- 
rcav Kal irepTrrr) v^ets Be vija-rsucrare rer- 
pdBa Kal 7rapaorKevi )V. MrjBe irpoaev^aQe 
155 to? of vTroKpiTai, d\\ wtf exeXevaev 6 Kvpios 

ev raj evayye\iu> avrov, ovra) 



he teach thee. For if thou art able to bear the whole 
yoke of the Lord, thou shalt be perfect ; but if thou art 
not able, what thou art able, that do. And concerning 
food, what thou art able, bear ; but of that offered to 
idols, beware exceedingly ; for it is a worship of dead 

CHAP. VII. Now concerning baptism, thus baptize 
ye : having first uttered all these things, baptize into the 
name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy 
Spirit, in running water. But if thou hast not running 
water, baptize in other water ; and if thou canst not in 
cold, then in warm. But if thou hast neither, pour 
water upon the head thrice, into the name of Father 
and Son and Holy Spirit. Bat before the baptism let 
the baptizer and the baptized fast, and whatever others 
can ; but the baptized thou shalt command to fast for 
two or three days before. 

CHAP. VIII. But let not your fastings be appointed 
in common with the hypocrites ; for they fast on the 
second day of the week and on the fifth ; but do ye fast 
during the fourth, and the preparation day. Nor pray 
ye like the hypocrites, but as the Lord commanded in his 



IlaTep fj/j,(t)V 6 eV rut ovpavw, dyiaa^iJTca TO 
ovofid crov, eX^ertu r) /3acri\eia crov, yevr/- 
*&iJTCo TO ^eXrjfjid crov tag ev ovpavw Kal eVi yijs 

1GO TOV aprov r)fj,wv TOV CTrioicriov So? THJUV 0-rj/j.e- 

pov Koi a<f><; rj/j-iv rrjv ofaiXrjv rjfjiwv a>? KOI 
fjfJieiS d<f)lefj,ev rot? o^etXerat? r)/j.a)v, Kal ftrj 
elcrvejKT}<f ripcis ei? Treipacr/jbov, aXXa pvcrai rj^a<; 
aTTo TOV TTOvr/pov OTI crov ecrTiv r) Suva/u? Kal rj 

165 8o ^a et9 TOW alwvas. Tpls T^? 7j[j,epa<; OVTW 

. Hep\ Se T% 

TrpwTov Trepl TOV Trorrjpiov Ev^apicrTovfJ,V crot, 
IlaTep rjficov, VTrep T^? dyias a/x7reXou Aafilo 

170 TOW 7rat8o ? o-ou, 175 eyixapicras r^ilv Bid Irjcrov 

TOV TrcuSo ? crov crol r/ S6j;a elf TOU? alon>as. He pi 
Se TOU Xa<r/iaTO? Ev^apicrTovfJ-ev croi, 
17/zw^, uTre/J TT}? ^a)^? /cai yvcacrews, 17? 
r^iiv Sta Irjcrov TOV TratSo? o-oy o~oi ?; S6a et? 

175 TOU? atwi/a?. "fl&Trep r)V TOVTO K\dcr/j,a Siecrtcop- 

TTtcr/jievov eTrdvo) TWV opeajv Kal crvvajfiev eye- 
veTO ev, ovTO) crvvayfiiJTO) crov rj eKK\rjcria UTTO 
TWV "TTepaTwv T^? y?}? et? TTJV arjv 
OTI crov ecrTiv rj Soa Ka\ r) Bid ^ 

180 XpicrTov et? TOU? ai wfa?. M^Sei? Be 



gospel, thus pray : Our Father who art in heaven, Hal 
lowed be thy name, thy kingdom come, thy will be 
done, as in heaven, so on earth ; our daily bread give us 
to-day, and forgive us our debt as we also forgive our 
debtors, and bring us not into temptation, but deliver us 
from the evil one ; for thine is the power and the glory 
forever. Three times in the day pray ye thus. 

CHAP. IX. Now concerning the Eucharist, thus give 
thanks ; first, concerning the cup : We thank thee, our 
Father, for the holy vine of David thy servant, which 
thou hast made known to us through Jesus thy servant ; 
to thee be the glory forever. And concerning the 
broken bread : We thank thee, our Father, for the life 
and the knowledge which thou hast made known to us 
through Jesus thy servant ; to thee be the glory forever. 
Just as this broken bread was scattered over the hills 
arid having been gathered together became one, so let 
thy church be gathered together from the ends of the 
earth into thy kingdom ; for thine is the glory and the 
power through Jesus Christ forever. But let no one eat 




et? ovo^a Kvpiov Kal yap Trept 
TOVTOV elpvjicev 6 Kupto? Mr/ Score TO ayiov rot? 

185 Ke0. 4 . JkfeTa Se TO e/jLTrXrjcr^yjvai OVTWS eu^aptarrr,- 
cTttre Ev%apiaTov/j,ev crot, Ildrep ayte, VTrep TOV 
aytov ovo/LtaTO? aou, ou /caTecr/c;;i/wcra9 eV Tai? 
at? rjfAwv, Kal v-jrep TT)? yv&aecos teal TTICT- 
/cat a^ai^acri ai 1 ^9 eywopura? Bia 
190 ^Irfaov TOV 7rat8o 9 crou crol 7} So^a ei9 Toi/9 

ai cu^a9. ^y, SecrTroTa TravTo/cpdrop, eK-ricras ~ra 
Trdvra eveicev TOV oVo/uaTo? trou, rpo(pijv re Kal 
TTOTOV eowKaf Toi? dv^ pcaTrois els cnroXavcnv iva 
trot v%apio-Tr)o-a)o~iv, r]fuv Be e^apicra) TTVCV- 
195 fMariKrjV Tpofyrjv KO\ TOTOV Kal a)r)i euttVlOV Sid 

TOV 7rat5o9 crou. J2/30 TrdvTwv u^apiaTov/j.i> 
trot OTI Bwctrbq el" crol /} Soa et9 Toi/9 alwvas. 
i, Kvpie, T-^9 KK\i]o-ias aov TOV puaa- 
avrrjv diro 7ra^T09 irovrfpov Kal TeXetcocrat 
200 avTrjv ev -rri dyaTrrj o~ov, Kal avva^ov av~r,v UTTO 

Teo-adpwv dvefj.<av, TTJV dyiao-^ei&av els Trjv 
(3acn\e{av, r)v ^Tot/iacra? avrfj- OTI aov 
ICTTIV T Bvvaj-is Kal i S6 



or drink of your Eucharist, except those baptized into 
the Lord s name ; for in regard to this the Lord hath 
said : Give not that which is holy to the dogs. 

CHAP. X. Kovv after ye are filled thus do ye give 
thanks: We thank thee, holy Father, for thy holy 
name, which thou hast caused to dwell in our hearts, 
and for the knowledge and faith and immortality which 
thou hast made known to us through Jesus thy servant ; 
to thee be the glory forever. Thou, Almighty Master, 
didst create all things for thy name s sake ; both food 
and drink thou didst give to men for enjoyment, in 
order that they might give thanks to thee ; but to us 
thou hast graciously given spiritual food and drink 
and eternal life through thy servant. Before all things, 
we thank thee that thou art powerful ; to thee be the 
glory forever. Remember, Lord, thy church, to de 
liver it from every evil and to make it perfect in thy 
love, and gather it from the four winds, it, the sancti 
fied, into thy kingdom, which thou hast prepared for 
it ; for thine is the power and the glory forever. Let 
grace come and let this world pass away. Ilosanna to 


205 flaavva ru> via) Aa/318. Ei rt? ayio? ecrriv, ep- 

^e cr^ey et rt? OVK eari, ^.eravoeiraj 
Ajj.rjv. Tot? Se 7r/3o<^/Tai9 emrpeirere 
picrTeiv oaa 


210 Ta Trpoeipij/jieva, 8eaa^e avrov eav Se auro? 

o SiSdcrKwv crTpa^>et9 StSao-*?; aXXrjv BiSa^rjv elf 
TO /caraXOcrat, yitr/ avrov aKOvarjre els 8e TO 
jrpoaSeivai Sitca.ioo vvrjv teal yvwcriv Kvpiov* 
Se^acr^e avrov d>? K.vpiov. Ilepl Se rwv artoa- 

215 ToXtoy /cat 7rpo(f)rjT(t)v Kara ro 86y/j.a rov evay- 

ye\Lov, ovrco Tronja-are. JTTa? 5e aTrocrToXo? 
ep^ofjievos TT/JO? i/yua? Se^^Ttu a>? Kvpios ov 
fievet Be fjnepav fUOV eav Be y %peia, tcai rrjv 
a\\T)v T/3649 Se eav fteivy, ^ 

220 e<rru>. E^ep-^o^evof Be 6 UTTOCTTOXO? 

fiaverca elfj.rj aprov ea>? ov auXtcr^^ eav Se ap- 
yvpiov alrfj, ^-evBoTrpo^rrj ; earl. Kal rrdvra 
TTpotpijrrjv \a\ovvra ev 7rvevfj.ari ov Tretpda-ere 
ovBe Biaicpiveire -naaa yap u/j,aprta d<fre^i /- 

225 crerai, avrrf Be f) d/j.aprla OVK dcfre^TJcrerat. Ou 

Trd i Be 6 XaXwv ev Trvei/^an Trpofajrrjs ecrriv, 
ok.". eiiv e^rj rovs TpoTrov^ Kvpiov. Arrb ovv 
rwv rpoTraiV yvcaa^rj crerai 6 tyevBoTrpotprjrrjs Kal 



the son of David ! Whoever is holy, let him come ; 
whoever is not, let him repent. Maranatha. Amen. 
But permit the prophets to give thanks as much as they 

CHAP. XI. !Now whoever cometh and teacheth you 
all these things, before spoken, receive him ; but if the 
teacher himself turn aside and teach another teaching, 
so as to overthrow this, do not hear him ; but if he teach 
so as to promote righteousness and knowledge of the 
Lord, receive him as the Lord. But in regard to the 
apostles and prophets, according to the ordinance of the 
gospel, so do ye. And every apostle who cometh to you, 
let him be received as the Lord ; but he shall not remain 
more than one day ; if, however, there be need, then 
the next day ; but if he remain three days, he is a false 
prophet. But when the apostle departeth, let him take 
nothing except bread enough till he lodge again ; but 
if he ask money, he is a false prophet. And every 
prophet who speaketh in the spirit, ye shall not try 
nor judge; for every sin shall be forgiven, but this sin 
shall not be forgiven. But not every one that speaketh 
in the spirit is a prophet, but only if he have the ways 
of the Lord. So from their ways shall the false prophet 



o Trpofpijrrjs. Kal ?ra? 7rpo<prJTr)s opifav rpd- 
230 -rre^av ev 7rvev/j,aTt,, ov (pdyerat CLTT auT%, elBe 

tyev8o7rpo(piJTr]<; eerri Tra? Se 

Trjv a\r)*$eiav, el a StSdaKei ov 

JTa? Se Trpoffrr/Trjs Be8oKi- 
TTOIWV et? fivarijpiov /cooyu- 
235 KOV eKK\ij(Tiaf, prf BiftdcrKajv 8e Trotetv ocra avTos 

Trotet, ov Kpi0rj(TTai, <j) V/JLWV fiera Qeov yap 
%ei rrjv tcplaiv oDaavrcof yap eTrolrjcrav KCLI ol 
dp%aioi Trpo^rjrai,. "O? 8 av eiTrrj ev 7rvev/j,aTi 
Aos pot dpyvpia rj erepd riva, OVK 
240 avTov" eav Se Trepl a\\wv varepovvrwv 

Sovvai, yu,?;Set? avrov 

Ke<p. t/3 . JTa? 8e 6 epxo/JLevos ev ovoftaTt Kvpt ov Se^- 
iJTQ), eVetra Be So/ct/^acrai/Te? ainov yvdnaea^e 
o-vveo-iv yap e^ere 8eiav Kal dpLcrrepdv. El/j.ev 

245 TrapoSio? e&Tiv 6 e/o^o /iei/o?, fiorjSeire avrca oaov 

&vvacr0e ov jjievei Be trpos v/j,ds el p,rj 8vo rj 
Tpei9 rj/jLepas, cav y dvdyKij. El Be OeXei Trpos 
u/uav fcadfjcrai, re-^virrj^ wv, epyaQo-^a> Kal 
(payerm el Be OVK e^et re^vrjv, Kara rrjv avveaiv 

250 vfj,(ov TrpovoTJcrare, TTW? /u.^ dpybs fj-e6 V/JLWV f>;cre- 

rai ^ptcTTtai/6?. El 8 ov de\et ovrw iroielv, 
T(jnrop6s ecrrt Trpoae-^eTe UTTO Tcais TOIOVTWV. 



and the prophet be known. And no prophet who or 
ders a meal, in the spirit, eateth of it, unless indeed he 
is a false prophet; and every prophet who teacheth the 
truth, if he do not that which he teacheth, is a false 
prophet. But every prophet, proved, true, acting with 
a view to the mystery of the church on earth, but not 
teaching others to do all that he himself doeth, shall 
not be judged among you ; for with God he hath his 
judgment ; for so did the ancient prophets also. But 
whoever, in the spirit, says : Give me money, or some 
thing else, ye shall not hear him ; but if for others in 
need, he bids you give, let no one judge him. 

CHAP. XII. But let every one that cometh in the 
Lord s name be received, but afterward ye shall test and 
know him ; for ye shall have understanding, right and 
left. If he who comes is a traveller, help him as much 
as ye can ; but he shall not remain with you, unless for 
two or three days, if there be necessity. But if he will 
take up his abode among you, being an artisan, let him 
work and so eat ; but if he have no trade, provide, 
according to your understanding, that no idler live 
with you as a Christian. But if he will not act accord 
ing to this, he is one who makes gain out of Christ ; be 
ware of such. 



67 - ITa? Be Trpoffrrjrrjs cikrj&ivos, Sekwv ic 
7rpo9 t/ia9, ato9 eVrt rrjs rpoffis avrov. 
255 T&>9 8tSaoveaXo9 dXtySmfc eo-rtv afo<? /cal aw- 

ro9, w^Trep 6 ep7ar7;9, r^9 rpoffis avrov. TLa- 
aav ovv ajrap^v lyevvrj/jLarcov \TJVOV teal aXwvos, 
re /cat 7rpo/3dro)V \aj3(av 8a)cret9 rot9 irpo- 
w avrol yap elaiv QI ap^iepel^ vfj,wv. 
Eav Se ^ e^re Trpo^rrjv, Bore rot9 irrw^ol^. 
Eav cnriav Troty?, rrjv ajrap-^v \a(3a)v 809 Kara 
rrjv evrd\r)v. fla-avrws Kepd^iov oivov 77 e\atov 

apyvpiov Be xal i^ana-fAou teal Travros 
265 \a(3a)V rrjv cnrap^v a>9 av croi Bogy, 809 Kara 

Keep. iB . Kara KvpiaKrjv Be Kvplov owagMme K\d- 
a-are aprov Kal ev^apio-rija-are 7rpoae^ofj,o\oyrj- 
a-d/Jievoi ra irapaTrrwuara vpwv, 07r&)9 Ka&apd 

270 r) Ova-la vpwv 17. Ha9 Be eywv rrjv a^i^o\tav 

fj,era rov eraipov avrov fJirj ffvve\6era> vfuv, ea>9 
ov Bia\\ay(0a-iv, iva f^rj KoivcoOfj rj Bvcria v^iwv 
avrrj yap ecmv r} prjfleto-a VTTO Kvpiov Ev 
iravrl roTry Kal Xpovw 7rpoo-<f>epeiv pot 6vaiav 

275 Ko&apdv on ySacrtXe^ ^709 et/u, "\eyet Kvpi- 

09, Kal TO ovopd aov Bav^acrrov ev rot9 eOvecri. 


CHAP. XIII. But every true prophet who will set 
tle among you is worthy of his support. Likewise a 
true teacher, he also is worthy, like the workman, of 
his support. Every firstfruit, then, of the products of 
wine-press and threshing-floor, of oxen and of sheep, 
thou shalt take and give to the prophets ; for they are 
your high-priests. But if ye have no prophet, give it to 
the poor. If thou makest a baking of bread, take the 
first of it and give according to the commandment. In 
like manner when thou openest a jar of wine or oil, take 
the first of it and give to the prophets ; and of money and 
clothing and every possession take the first, as seems 
right to thee, and give according to the commandment. 

CHAP. XIV. But on the Lord s day do ye assemble 
and break bread, and give thanks, after confessing your 
transgressions, in order that your sacrifice may be pure. 
But every one that hath controversy with his friend, let 
him not come together with you, until they be reconciled, 
that your sacrifice may not be profaned. For this is 
that which was spoken by the Lord : At eveiy place and 
time, bring me a pure sacrifice ; for a great king am I, 
saith the Lord, and my name is marvellous among the 



K.(f). ie . XeipoTovtfaare ovv eavrois eVt<7/co7rou9 KOI 
BtaKovovs d^iovs rov Kvpiov, avSpas rrpaels teal 
d<pi\.apyvpov<> Kal d\rj6el^ Kal SeSoKipacr/Aevovs- 
280 vfuv yap \eirov pjovat Kal avTol rrjv \eiTovpyl- 

av TWV 7rpo(f> r)T(t)V KOI StSacrfcaXwv. Mr) ovv 
VTrepi&rjTe avrovs avrol yap elaiv ol TeTi/i7//ie- 
VOL vfjiMV yLtera TWV irpoffyrjrwv Kal SiSacrKaXwv. 

^Xey^ere Be aX\7;Xou? fj,rj ev opyrj, dXA, eV 
285 elprjvp, a>9 e ^ere ev TU> evayyeX.iQ) Kal Travrl 

aa-ro^ovvri Kara rov erepov /i-^Sel? \a\eira /iiySe 
Trap V/AWV a/couera), eiw? ov neravo^ap. Ta<? 8e 
vpwv Kal ra? eXerjfjioavvas Kal 7racra9 ra? 
t9 ovra Tronja-are, a>9 e%ere ev rut evayye- 

290 X/ft> TOO KvptOV r]/Ji03V. 

FpijyopeiTe vTrep rrjs f&)>;9 VJJLWV ol 

prj o-/3ea-0r]T(i)(rav, Kal ai oafyves VJAWV /J,rj 

, a\\a yiveaOe erot/zot ov yap 
oiSare rrjv wpav, ev y o Kvpios rj/j,a)v ep^erai. 
295 IIvKVws Be a-vva-^drja-eo-de fyTOvvres TO, avrJKOv- 

ra rat9 iru^a vfjicov ov yap 

7Ta9 ^301/09 T?}9 7TiurT6&)9 V/LLWV, O,V fJLr) V T5 

arw Kaipw T\et(o6ijr. Ev yap rais eo-%d- 
at9 7r\r]dvv0^(Tovrai ol ^ev^oirpo^fjrai 
300 /cat 01 <p0opels Kal a-rpa^aovrai ra Trpofiara 



CHAP. XV. ISTow appoint for yourselves bishops and 
deacons worthy of the Lord, men meek and not ava 
ricious, and upright and proved ; for they, too, render 
you the service of the prophets and teachers. Despise 
them not, therefore; for they are the ones who are 
honored of you, together with the prophets and teachers. 

And reprove one another, not in anger, but in peace, 
as ye have it in the gospel; and to every one who erreth 
against another, let no one speak, nor let him hear any 
thing from you, until he repent. But your prayers and 
your alms and all your deeds so do ye, as ye have it 
in the gospel of our Lord. 

CHAP. XVI. Watch for your life s sake ; let your 
lamps not go out, and your loins not be relaxed, but be 
ready ; for ye know not the hour in which our Lord com- 
eth. But ye shall come together often, and seek the 
things which bent your souls ; for the whole time of your 
faith thus far will not profit you, if ye do not be 
come perfect in the last time. For in the last days 
the false prophets and the corruptors shall be multiplied, 
and the sheep shall be turned into wolves, and love 



ei9 X.I//COU9 fcal T] d<ydTrr) arpatyrjcrerai et9 |iucro9 * 
av%avovar)s yap r?}9 avo/itas t /itcr^crovcru/ d\\tf- 
Xoi9 fcal &id)ovcn KOI Trapa&axrovffi, Kal rare 
(fravrjo-erat, 6 Koap-OTrXdvos d>9 vto? &eov KOL iroi- 

305 rjcrei (Tf)p,ela Kal repara, Kal rj ryrj Trapa&oOrjcre- 

rai et9 xelpas avrov, Kal Troi^crei dOefJura, a 
ovBerrore yeyovev ej; aiwvos. Tore r/et rj 
TWV dv0pu)7ra)V et9 rrjv irvpajcriv r^9 So/a/ 
teal cncav$a\ia6r)crovTai 7ro\\ol Kal aTroXovvrai,, 

310 ol Se vTrofjieivavres ev rfj iriaTti avrwv awQr]- 

aovrai vif avrov TOV KaraOefjiaTos. Kal rare 
(pavijcrerai ra afj/jieia rf)<> d\i]0eia^ 
o-ijjjieiov e /c7reTacre&>9 eV ovpavy, elra 
^)co^9 o-a\7Ti7709 Kal TO rplrov dvdarao-is v- 

315 Kpwv ov TrdvTwv Be, d\7C a>9 eppeOr) "H^ei, o 

Kvpio? Kal -Travres ol ayioi yu,er avrov. Tore 
o-fyerai, o /cocr^to9 rbv Kvpiov ep^op.evov ITTUVOJ 
rwv ve(f)\.d>v rov ovpavov. 


shall be turned into hate; for when lawlessness in- 
creaseth they shall hate one another, and shall persecute 
and shall deliver up, and then shall appear the world- 
deceiver as the Son of God, and shall do signs and won 
ders, and the earth shall be given into his hands, and 
he shall commit iniquities which have never yet been 
done since the beginning. Then all created men shall 
come into the fire of trial, and many shall be made to 
stumble and shall perish. But they that endure in 
their faith shall be saved from this curse. And then 
shall appear the signs of the truth ; first the sign of an 
opening in heaven, then the sign of the trumpet s sound, 
and thirdly, the resurrection of the dead ; yet not of all, 
but as it hath been said : The Lord will come and all the 
saints with him. Then shall the world see the Lord 
coming upon the clouds of heaven. 




*Deut. 5 : 17-19 35 f. *Sirach 4:31 86 f. 

*Tobit4:15 7 f . Zech. 14:5 315 f. 

*Sirach2:4 75 f/ Mai. 1:11,14 2731 

*Sirach 4:5 91 f. 



*Matt. 5:5 69 f . 

*Matt. 5:22 284 f. 

*Matt. 5:26 30 f. 

*Matt. 5:39-48 16 f. 

Matt. 6 : 5-13 155 f. 

*Matt. 6 and 7 289 

Matt. 7:6 183 f. 

*Matt. 7 : 15-23 215 f. 

*Matt. 10: 5-12 215 f. 

*Matt. 10: 10 256 

*Matt. 12:31 224 f. 

*Matt. 18: 15-17 284 

*Matt. 18:21-35 284 

Matt. 21:9 205 

Matt. 22 : 27-39 . . 5 f . 


*Matt. 24:3-4 298 f. 

*Matt. 24:24-31 313 f. 

*Matt. 24:31 200f. 

*Matt. 24:42,44 291 f. 

Matt 28: 19 1401 

*Luka 6 : 27-35 10 

"Luke 9:1-6 215 f. 

*LukelO:4-21 2151 

Luke 11: 2-4 1551 

"Luke 11 and 12 2891 

*Lukel2: 35 2911 

*Acts4:32 921 

*Eph. 6:5,9 1031 

*1 Thess. 


*1 Pet. 2:11 151 

1 This table is that of Bryenniop, who adds: "By this sign [*] arc distinguished 
the passages which ave not verbally cited in the Teaching, and those to which the 
Teaching simply refers, with the words, As the Lord commanded in the gospel. " 



Another title is Ai8ax? xvpiov 8ti rS>v 8A8a A7ro<rrdAa>i/, 
Teaching of the Lord through the Twelve Apostles." Atha- 
nasius also calls it 8iSa^. But Eusebius (Hist. iii. 25) uses the 
plural, fcdaxai. And Clement of Alexandria cites it as ypac^. 


P. 2, 1. 8. "do not to another"] The Golden Eule occurs 
both here and in the Apostolic Constitutions (vii. 2), in a nega 
tive form, as in the teachings of Confucius. 

P. 2, 1. 11." fast for them that persecute you "] The em- 
phasis put upon fasting, here and elsewhere in this document, 
is no sign of Montanism, since fasting was much emphasized in 
the early Church, and Montanism itself was, in this respect, only 
an exaggeration of common usage. 

P. 4, 1. 15. "ye shall have no enemy"] Suggested, appar 
ently, by 1 Pet. iii. 13, "And who is he that will harm you, if 
ye be zealous of that which is good ? " 

P. 4, 1. 22. "for indeed thou canst not"] Because Chris 
tians were forbidden to "go to law before the unrighteous," 1 Cor. 
vi. 1. 


P. 4, 1. 32. "Let thine alms sweat in thy hands, until them 
knowest to whom thou shoulclst give "] A very graphic injunc 
tion of carefulness in giving. 


P. 4, 1. 36. "thou shalt not corrupt boys"] The TrmSfpaorir. 
of Classic writers, referred to by Paul in Eom. i. 27. 

P. G, 1. 38. "by abortion"] Another heathen abomination. 

P. 6, 1. 42, 43. 8ty\ coo-o- i a] This noun does not occur in 
Classic Greek, nor in the New Testament, but is found, to 
gether with the entire sentence in which it here stands, in the 
Epistle of Barnabas, Chap. xix. There are many other corre 
spondences between that epistle and the present document. 

P. C, 1. 44. "filled with doing"] i.e., works, deeds, as in 
Matt. xvi. 27. 


P. 6, 1. 60. "nor a purifier"] Referring to some kind of su 
perstitious lustration, perhaps by fire, as in Lev. xviii. 21 ; 
Deut. xviii. 10. 


P. 10, 1. 87. "for taking stretches out the hands, but for 
giving draws them in "] Graphic description of taking and 

P. 10, 1. 88. "by thy hands thou shalt give a ransom for 
thy sins "] Beneficence is better than sacrifice. See Prov. xvi. 
(5, " By mercy and truth iniquity is purged." 

P. 10, 1. 98." thy slave "] As in the New Testament, so 
here, the relation of master and slave is not denounced, but 



This catalogue of evil things pertaining to the "way of 
death," reflects only too faithfully the dreadful corruption of 
the ancient civilization. 


P. 14, 1. 136. "And concerning food, what thou art able, 
bear "] Nothing is unclean of itself, as Paul says in Rom. xiv. 
14. And again in 1 Tim. iv. 4, " For every creature of God is 
good, and nothing is to be rejected, if it be received with 
thanksgiving. " 


P. 14, 1. 139. "Now, concerning baptism ... in running 
water"] eV v8ari favri, literally "in living water," water in mo 
tion, either as in a fountain, or as in a stream. A picture in the 
Catacomb of St. Callixtus, dating from about the year 200 A.D., 
represents a youth standing ankle-deep in water, and receiving 
baptism by the pouring of water upon his head. [See Northcote 
and Brownlow s "Roma Sotteranea," Part II., Plate XV.] The 
passage before us apparently recommends just this mode of per 
forming the rite. If this should be impracticable, then fresh 
cold water might be similarly used [in a font]. If cold water 
could not be had, warm water would answer. If neither cold 
nor warm water in sufficient quantity (ankle-deep) could be 
had, then pouring only (the feet resting on the floor or ground) 
would suffice. This last is now the Syrian mode of baptism, 
and probably always has been. This fact, ascertained by the 
Crusaders (in the third Crusade, 1189-92), and made known 
through them in Europe, would help to account for Aquinas s 
definition of baptism, so different from that of Peter Lombard 



about a century before. Lombard s definition requires immer 
sion ; Aquinas s definition permits either immersion, pouring, 
or sprinkling. The Seventh Book of the Apostolic Constitu 
tions, at this point (Section xxii.), says nothing about the mode, 
but prescribes anointing with oil, both before and after bap 
tism. Fasting is enjoined in both documents. 


P. 14, 1. 154. napaffKtvqv] Cf. John xix. 14. 
Wednesday and Friday are named as days of fasting, instead 
of Monday and Thursday, as observed by "the hypocrites." 
The Lord s Prayer ends with the Doxology, as in Matthew, in 
stead of its being omitted, as in Liike. 


These two chapters contain a brief eucharistic liturgy. 


Apostles and Prophets are described as mere evangelists, or 
itinerant preachers, who were not expected to remain in one 
place more than a single day. 

P. 20, 1. 218. et M>7 has been inserted in the translation before 
Wfpav. So Harnack, Theol Lit. Zelt., Feb. 9, 1884. Cf. p. 22, 
1. 246. 


P. 22, 1. 244." Ye shall have understanding right and left "] 
That is, a complete understanding. See 2 Cor. vi. 7. 



Prophets and teachers are here spoken of as resident minis 
ters, entitled to maintenance. They were to have the first- 
fruits of everything. 2m , in Classic Greek, is the plural of 
am oi;, meaning "food" in general. Here, as in the Byzantine 
Greek, it is a singular noun, and means "batch," or "baking 
of bread." 


The Lord s Day is the day for worship and for the Eucharist. 
No mention is made of the seventh day of the week. 


P 26 1 277. "Now appoint for yourselves," xP oro>/ 7 aTf 

oh iavrow] Xtiporwi oi occurs only twice in the New Testament 
(Acts xiv. 23 ; 2 Cor. viii. 19), and, in both places, means sim 
ply to " appoint." Josephus uses the word in the same sense 
in Ant. xiii. 2, 2, where Alexander Balas, the pretended son of 
Antiochus Epiphanes, " appoints " Jonathan High Priest. The 
same meaning appears in Ant. vii. 9, 3 ; vii. 11, 1. In Ant. vi. 
5, 4, however, the noun x porowa is used of the coronation o 
Saul. In Josephus, accordingly, the prevailing sense of X P"- 
TOWW is to "appoint." This is the meaning of the word also in 
the Epistles of Ignatius (about 115 A.D.). See Philadelphians, 
Chap. 10 ; Smyrnoeans, Chap. 11 ; Polycarp, Chap. 7. 

But in the "Apostolic Canons," I. and II., and in the Apos 
tolic Constitutions," viii. 4, 5, X i p0 Tow means to "ordain." 
This represents the usage of the third century, as the New Tes 
tament, Josephus, and Ignatius represent the usage of the first 
and second centuries. 


Now, it is note-worthy, that in the "Apostolic Constitutions," 
vii. 31 (the section corresponding to the passage before us)) the 
word employed is not ^ftporoWo), which then meant "ordain," 
but Trpoxfiptgofjiai, a new usage having obtained. In this fif 
teenth chapter of the "Teaching," ^eiporoWw is employed, evi 
dently, in its original sense of " appoint." This indicates the 
high antiquity of the document, antedating by decades, if not 
by a whole century, the "Apostolic Canons" and the "Apos 
tolic Constitutions." 

As for the officers to be "appointed," only Bishops and Dea 
cons are mentioned. By Bishops must, of course, be meant 
Presbyters, or Elders. There is no sign of a Bishop as distin 
guished from a Presbyter ; nor of a Ruling Elder as distin 
guished from a Teaching Elder ; and, apparently, there was in 
each congregation a plurality both of Bishops (or Elders) and 


The document concludes with a vision of the Lord coming 
upon the clouds of heaven, and all the saints with him. The 
resurrection is of the dead, veicpiav, though "not of all the 
dead." Not a word is said of any second resurrection. If there 
is to be a second resurrection, it is only implied. Of course, 
no interval is indicated. Premillennarianism, accordingly, is 
not directly, perhaps not even indirectly, taught. Following 
the lead of the New Testament, as in Matt. xxiv. 31, and in 
1 Thess. iv. 13-18, o\ar document may, after all, only be em 
phasizing the resurrection of the righteous. 





32. 8e 5^. 

32. ISpwrdTw ISpwadru. 

51. 6p-yl\os 6pyt\os- 

59. dSu\o\arpiav f iSu>\o\aTpelai>> 

62. et SwAoAarpfa et StoAoAarpe/a. 

91. ^ <3. 

103. 5oS\ot [Szc/ See Bryenn., p. 22, N. 19]..SoC\o. 

104. fi/j.G>v v^Ssv- 

114, 115. fi5(0\o\a.Tpiat eiSaiAoXorpeTai. 

115. $apfJ.a.Kiai l (papumtfiai. 

158, 159. ywrieJiTie 7fi/rj^Tw. 

188. fyi<i> ^ l uwj . 

197. o-u i] 5<Jja ffol ^ 5J|a. 

205. is dwo ry 0eip &ffavvii r<f vl/f. 

229. & pifav bpifrv. 

244. eferat (eTf . 

258. S<6(jeiy TJJJ/ etTrapx 1 ) 1 5<j*(s. 

1 Used only in poetry. Bryenn.